Oregon Childhood Program Participation and Early Educational Outcomes: Part 2 – Risk and Protective Factors

Part 2 – Risk and Protective Factors examines which child and family characteristics are potential risk and protective factors associated with early educational outcomes. This analysis examined relationships between early educational outcomes and child and family characteristics including demographic traits, birth circumstances, parental characteristics, participation in public income-based programs, and child welfare involvement.

By identifying characteristics associated with both poor and positive educational outcomes, this analysis can assist policymakers by highlighting areas for targeted policy focus.

Highlighted Key Findings

This analysis focused on risk and protective factors associated with 5 educational outcomes that, taken collectively, serve as indicators of early student success. The 5 educational outcomes included are: Kindergarten Approaches to Learning; 2nd Grade Regular Attendance; 3rd Grade Reading Comprehension; 5th Grade Student Homelessness; 5th Grade School Suspensions. For full results, please see the policy brief.

  • Prenatal tobacco use and lower household incomes, as indicated by participation in income-based support programs (SNAP, TANF, and Medicaid/CHIP), were associated with poorer outcomes for all 5 educational outcomes.
  • A mother’s level of education at the time of her child’s birth was directly related to her child’s early educational outcomes.
  • Being an English Learner was associated to both positive and negative early educational outcomes.
  • Male sex/gender was related to negative outcomes across 3 of the 5 educational metrics.

Many characteristics examined, such as level of education or English language proficiency, are intended to act as a proxy for experiences or exposures that cannot be measured accurately and completely with available data, such as exposure to systemic racism, poverty, or lack of access to resources. These data points do not fully describe an individual’s identity or experience.

Featured Data Visualization

Select Risk Factors and Protective Factors for Early Educational Outcomes

Table showing risk and protective factors associated with mother's education at birth


  • Being born to a mother with a college degree or higher increased the likelihood of positive outcomes across 4 of the educational metrics.
    • The higher the level of mother’s education, the stronger the association.
  • Being born to a mother without a high school diploma was related to negative outcomes across 4 of the metrics.

Related OCID Resources

3rd Grade Assessments: Reading & Math

Screen shot of 3rd grade assessments dashboard

Explore our 3rd Grade Assessments indicator to investigate potential trends or disparities among groups of children.

Early Program Participation: Part 3 – Associations Between Program Participation and Outcomes

Table showing participation in selected program pairs

Read this policy brief to learn about associations between dual-program participation and educational outcomes, and whether those associations vary by different child and family characteristics.

Interactive Displays of Early-childhood Program Participation

Screen shot of Interactive Displays of Early-childhood Program Participation

Use the interactive displays to examine relationships between participation in select public childhood programs and subsequent early educational outcomes for children born in Oregon.